Why needed

 Information scarce

 Scientific investigation

 Single principle theorists

 Many moralities theorists

 Drop moral philosophy
 and develop moral
 science theorists

 20th century emotivists





 Criteria for a model


 General systems theory

 Emergent ethical theory



 Key points

For the future



From the Historical Collection of the work of Dr. Clare W. Graves of William R. Lee, March 2001




A subsequent paper will present the authorís speculations as to the nature of the emergent ethical systems hypothesized therein. First, let us see why new models are needed. 


". . . if we demand that the study of human morals be a closely integrated synthesis of empirical data with a rigorous theory underlying it, then we have not taken the first step toward a science of character (1, p. 410)."


". . . if we are to solve the problems of peace and war between alliances, ideologies, nations, labor and management; if we are to solve the problems of race relations, character development, crime and the like, we must recognize that they will be solved only by the decisions of individuals and only if the decisions are based on substantive knowledge and only if the individuals who make such decisions are ethically sensitive

and ethically mature (2, p )." (Slightly modified by the writer).

These words of Bonner and the World Book of encyclopedia indicates two reasons why we need additional theories of ethical behavior based upon different models. (In a subsequent paper describing the theorized ethical systems other reasons will be discussed). First, as Bonner says, we do not have a basic scientific knowledge of ethics and second, as the other words say, we canít make inroads into ethical problems because we lack the knowledge necessary to solve such problems. Some will disagree with these points because they do not believe our problem is to find what ethical behavior is like. These people believe our problem is to learn how to develop the ethically sensitive and ethically mature decision maker. There is no doubt that many people assume that they know what ethical behavior is and it is true that these people are trying to produce what they consider to be the ethically mature decision maker. Some, like Blatz ( ), see values as arbitrarily determined by the older generation and see the task for those wishing to produce ethically mature decision makers to consist of choosing the desired set of values, then setting out relentlessly to stamp them in. Others such as Ligon and his co-workers take a more cautious approach. They have subscribed to a set of ethical values which they believe if incorporated would produce the ethically mature and ethically sensitive human being. Unlike those who try to relentlessly stamp in prescribed values the Character Research Project is carefully attempting to determine how to gradually develop the so called embryonic and fetal conditions and attitudes which would lead eventually to the mature ethical values of the ethically sensitive decision makers. Perhaps ethical values are not arbitrarily determined. Perhaps we are wrong when we say the Communists are unethical. Perhaps we donít have the knowledge necessary to understand their ethical systems. Perhaps we could handle our problems with them better if we understood their ethics. Perhaps we could make more progress in many areas if we sought knowledge of what ethical behavior is like rather than continue to operate within what may be false premises. 


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