subsequent paper will present the authorís speculations as to the
nature of the
emergent ethical systems hypothesized therein. First, let us see why
new models are needed.
. . if we demand that the study of human morals be a closely integrated
synthesis of empirical data with a rigorous theory underlying it,
then we have not taken the first step toward a science of character (1, p.
. . if we are to solve the problems of peace and war between alliances,
ideologies, nations, labor and management; if we are to solve the
problems of race relations, character development, crime and the like,
we must recognize that they will be solved only by the decisions of individuals
and only if the decisions are based on substantive knowledge and
only if the individuals who make such decisions are ethically
ethically mature (2, p )." (Slightly modified by the writer).
words of Bonner and the World Book of encyclopedia indicates
two reasons why we need additional theories of ethical behavior based
upon different models. (In a subsequent paper describing the theorized
ethical systems other reasons will be discussed). First, as Bonner
says, we do not have a basic scientific knowledge of ethics and second,
as the other words say, we canít make inroads into ethical problems
because we lack the knowledge necessary to solve such problems.
Some will disagree with these points because they do not believe
our problem is to find what ethical behavior is like. These people believe
our problem is to learn how to develop the ethically sensitive and
ethically mature decision maker. There is no doubt that many people assume
that they know what ethical behavior is and it is true that these people
are trying to produce what they consider to be the ethically mature decision
maker. Some, like Blatz ( ), see values as arbitrarily determined by the
older generation and see the task for those wishing to produce ethically
mature decision makers to consist of choosing the desired set of values,
then setting out relentlessly to stamp them in. Others such as Ligon
his co-workers take a more cautious approach. They have subscribed to a
set of ethical values which they believe if incorporated would
ethically mature and ethically sensitive human being. Unlike those
who try to
relentlessly stamp in prescribed values the Character Research
carefully attempting to determine how to gradually develop the so
and fetal conditions and attitudes which would lead eventually to the
mature ethical values of the ethically sensitive decision makers.
values are not arbitrarily determined. Perhaps we are wrong when we say
the Communists are unethical. Perhaps we donít have the knowledge necessary
to understand their ethical systems. Perhaps we could handle our problems
with them better if we understood their ethics. Perhaps we could make
more progress in many areas if we sought knowledge of what ethical behavior
is like rather than continue to operate within what may be false premises.
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