Research to date provides numerous examples to show clearly eight levels of human existence and others that can be seen only in dim outline. [1, 2] The definable levels and some of their managerial aspects are shown in Figure 1. Table 1 briefly describes each level (see references 1, 2 for more complete descriptions).

Table I – Levels of Existence



A-N Motivated only by imperative periodic physiologic needs - hunger, sleep – seeks individual bodily function stability through automatic responses.  No concept of time, distance, causality, awareness of self.
2 Tribalistic B-O

Seeks social (“tribal”) stability. Explains existence in dichotomous way – good-bad, taboo, superstition. Dim awareness of self, which is merged in “tribe,” believes “tribal” way is inherent in nature of things –    the task of daily life to simply continue what has enable the tribe, and therefore self, to be.

3 Egocentric C-P

Fully conscious of lone self-existence. Life is a jungle, only the  fit survive. Proud, lustful, aggressive, look out for self above all others, might is right. Prove self through heroic deeds – if successful, one is “chosen” – a “have” and has the right to do anything to anyone or anything. The “have-nots” failed in bold venture or never tried – they deserve nothing and should submit to the  “haves”. Open and unabashed aggressive expression of individual lusts by the “haves”, more covertly and deviously by the “have-nots”.

4 Saintly D-Q

Rules are prescribed for everyone and all things. Obedience and submission to the “order-of-things” is the price of a secure, lasting life. The world is seen as orderly, predictable, and unchanging – based on the predestined order set down by some external, often extra human authority. It is ones duty to accept the order-of-things, do no question, struggle, or explore - security comes through sacrifice and submission.  

5 Materialistic E-R

The overriding concern is to control the world about one for personal ends. Exploration, discovery, questioning limits, calculated risks, science, rationality, efficiency, and accomplishment are all means to control or manipulate. In a cold pragmatic way all tools are used as appropriate – dishonesty, deceit, and deception are employed as required. One is capable of learning the skills and required techniques – the self made individual. All things are economic – everything has a price. Never ruthless – it doesn’t pay. Controlled expression of ambition, greed, lust – too open allows others to Manipulate, be discreet and never too trusting. Go it alone if necessary.

6 Personalistic F-S

Relating self to others and to ones inner self is central. Being liked and with others is more important than material gain or power. Ready to go along with whatever everyone else in the group thinks is best. Strong need to be accepted, therefore, accepts others unquestioningly. Group membership is greatly valued – all individual values, morals, concepts, and ethics are derived from the group and can change overnight. Any non-group individual, thing, or concept has no valid claim to any consideration beyond what the group grants. Group processes, consensus, majority rule, and sensitivity training are valued.


Cognitive A'-N'

Concern is for oneself and the world one exists in.             Informationally oriented, pragmatic, seeks to do the “best” possible given the information on the current situation. Values and concepts are derived from current information. Motivation is from within – seeks a sense of personal competence. Those having the information of current situation should lead, as situation changes so should leader – revolving leadership pattern. No longer motivated by fear of survival, fear of God, pursuit of materialistic ends, fear of    social disapproval – quietly confident of own capabilities to survive, come what may. Free of compulsions and anxieties of previous levels. A truly cooperative individual, seeing the interdependence of all things, has no need for destructive, individual competition; but capable of cold ruthlessness if the situation requires.

8 Experientialistic B'-O'

Personal experience has shown this person that no matter how much information is available, one can never know or understand all things. Wonder, awe, reverence, humility, unity, and simplicity are valued. Reality can be experienced, but never known. Insists on an atmosphere of trust and respect. Resists coercion and restrictions in a quiet, personal way – never in an exhibitionistic manner. Avoids relations in which others try to dominate – seeks not to dominate others, but can provide firm direction as required.

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