the Historical Collection of the work of Dr. Clare W. Graves
presentations, papers, recorded transcripts, notes-
William R. Lee
cybernetical and other research. We have not done what is
necessary for managers to see certain of their problems and to
think innovatively in respect to them.
One foundation block laid down by cybernetical research has to
do with a particular relationship between the four managerial
regions included in the title of this paper - the regions of how
to manage, who manages, who is being managed and what work is
In cybernetical language, how a manager should lead what people
to do what work is a systemic problem. As such, to manage
effectively requires at least basic knowledge of how any system
operates. And one part of this basic knowledge is the foundation
block to which I have alluded.
To see the significance of it, it is necessary to translate the
meaning of my title into cybernetic language. What it suggests is
that effective management, in different situations, derives in
part from knowing certain relationships between at least four work
1. The subsystem of managerial policies, practices and
procedures, the subsystem having to do with the philosophy and
practices of management.
2. The psychological subsystem that is the leader, the
manager, supervisor or administrator, that is, his system of
beliefs as to what management is as shown in his operative
3. The psychological subsystem of the person being managed,
that is, his operative values and beliefs generating how he
wants to be managed, how he judges his management and how he
reacts to his management.
4. The subsystem of the work to be done, that is the
particular character of the work that the manager, through his
methods, is attempting to get the managee to perform.
One finding which cybernetical research has brought to our
attention has to do with the relation of subsystems within a
larger system, to one another and to the total system of which
they are a part. In our instance, the relationship of the methods
of management, the manger, the managed and the work to be done to
one another and of all and each to the total system, managing
others to get work done.
This particular relationship says that in a system, when any
part of the subsystem is out of phase with any other subsystem or
the total system, then the total system suffers. Or, stating it a
little differently, we can approach optimum equilibrated
performance of any system only when its subsystems are all in
phase and in phase with the goal of the total system. A car
canít give optimum performance if three wheels are running one
way and the fourth in some other direction.
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